Common Irregular Verbs


According to most texts, irregular verbs fail to comply with standard conjugation rules. However, the situation is not that simple. Most irregular verbs in English belong to groups of verbs that do follow rules. These rules have faded over time, but the patterns are often hard to miss: grow/grew, know/knew, throw/threw. The term irregular is not as accurate as English grammar texts would have us imagine.

This table lists the common irregular verbs. In most Web browsers, pointing to a row with your mouse will highlight the conjugations for better reading.

Present Tense Past Tense Past Participle
be (is, am, are) was, were been
beat beat beaten
become became become
begin began begun
bend bent bent
bet bet bet
bind bound bound
bite bit bitten
bleed bled bled
blow blew blown
break broke broken
breed bred bred
bring brought brought
build built built
burst burst burst
buy bought bought
cast cast cast
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
come came come
cost cost cost
creep crept crept
cut cut cut
deal dealt dealt
dig dug dug
do did done
draw drew drawn
dream dreamt (dreamed) dreamt (dreamed)
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
fit fit fit
flee fled fled
fly flew flown
forget forgot forgotten
forgive forgave forgiven
freeze froze frozen
get got gotten
give gave given
go went gone
grind ground ground
grow grew grown
hang hung, hanged hung, hanged
have had had
hear heard heard
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
keep kept kept
know knew known
lay laid laid
lead led led
leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let
lie lay lain
light lit, lighted lit, lighted
lose lost lost
make made made
mean meant meant
meet met met
pay paid paid
put put put
quit quit quit
read read read
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run
say said said
see saw seen
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
shake shook shaken
shed shed shed
shine shone, shined shone, shined
shoot shot shot
show showed shown
shrink shrank shrunk
shut shut shut
sing sang sung
sink sank sunk
sit sat sat
slay slew slain
sleep slept slept
slide slid slid
slit slit slit
speak spoke spoken
spend spent spent
spin spun spun
split split split
spread spread spread
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
stick stuck stuck
sting stung stung
stink stank stunk
strike struck struck
strive strove striven
swear swore sworn
sweep swept swept
swim swam swum
swing swung swung
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
tell told told
think thought thought
throw threw thrown
thrust thrust thrust
understand understood understood
wake woke woken
wear wore worn
weave wove woven
win won won
wind wound wound
withdraw withdrew withdrawn
write wrote written

Sources

Christ, Henry I. Modern English in Action, Ten. Boston: D. C. Heath and Co, 1965.

Ellsworth, Blanche and John A. Higgens. English Simplified. 10th ed. New York: Pearson Education, 2004. (ISBN: 0321104293)

Mulvey, Dan. Grammar the Easy Way. Hauppauge, N.Y: Barron’s, 2002. (ISBN: 0764119893)

Rozakis, Laurie E. Grammar and Style. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to. New York: Simon & Schuster, Alpha Books, 1997. (ISBN: 0028619560)

Scholastic Writer’s Desk Reference. New York: Scholastic, 2000. (ISBN: 0439216508)

Shertzer, Margaret. The Elements of Grammar. New York: MacMillian Publishing, 1986. (ISBN: 0020154402)


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Writer: C. S. Wyatt
Updated: 27-May-2014
Editor: S. D. Schnelbach