Category Archives: Writing

Comments and suggestions on writing.

Breaking Rules

Students, seminar attendees, and visitors to our online writing guide have complained that my insistence on knowing (and adhering to) traditional story structures ignores “real art” in favor of production and publication.

“You can break the rules after you master the rules,” I respond. “And then, only break them when you can defend the choice.”

Imagine my frustration when a play was rejected because it lacked the “journey” of the main character.

When I decided to write a play without a complete Hero’s journey, it was an intentional act (pun), a choice to parody a genre. There are characters in myth and legend that do not change. They don’t mature. Mocking that notion of the invariable being seemed promising.

One of the readers providing coverage clearly didn’t get the joke. The comments on the coverage sheet indicated the story needed a clear journey and transformation. Oops. My choice must not have been obvious.

There are two lesson: 1) breaking the formula is risky; 2) if the reader doesn’t know the original, parody doesn’t work.

The other reader did like the script and scored it “highly recommended,” but you need to run the gauntlet to be produced.

Both reviewers liked the dialogue, the wit, yet only one got the joke. That isn’t good. I’m not sure following the traditional formula would have helped.

Will I break the rules again? Of course. But I also understand the risks.

Writing is Planning

As I finished the draft of a short play, a colleague sent me a message asking how many new manuscripts or adaptations I have written in the last twelve months or so. It seems best to list them:

  • Billie’s Girlfriend, written in early 2014 and submitted to Acting Out! Pittsburgh Pride for consideration. It might not be selected, of course, but it is a new play.
  • Twists of Choice, written in early 2014 for The LAB Project, premiering in 2015.
  • Women Say F*ck, Too! written in late 2013 and premiering during the Pittsburgh Fringe Festival in May, 2014.
  • The Fertility Dance, written in 2013 and submitted to a regional contest. The company passed on the script, but it found a home for 2015.
  • The Cat Lady, written in 2014, about to be submitted to a regional contest.
  • Under Development, written in 2013, received a staged reading by Organic Theater Pittsburgh.

That would be six new works, with another two or three outlined. My goal is to complete seven new works in the 20-minute or longer range during 2014. Most of my plays run 70 to 80 minutes, not counting intermissions.

Friends say it seems like I’ve done more. That’s because older works that had been collecting dust are now finding homes as I dedicate myself to completing them, too. Older plays that have been revised or rewritten in the past year:

  • A New Death, my oldest unproduced script was rewritten and submitted to Throughline Theatre and will be premiering in July 2014.
  • The Gospel Singer, premiering in August, 2014, received as staged reading in 2013 as part of the “In the Raw” festival of Bricolage Production Company.
  • Clown and Mime, revised in 2013.
  • The Garden, which was produced in 2012, has been revised for a future production. (I can dream.)

I have at least ten scripts I hope to revive by 2015.

These counts do not include scripts I edited, revised, or completely wrote for other individuals as a consultant.

I don’t sit around waiting for ideas and I’ve stopped trying to perfect my old ideas. Now, I aim to get as many good scripts to producers and directors as possible. A good script becomes better, or even great, during the development process. Trying to perfect plays by editing alone for ten years was an ineffective approach to writing scripts.

Writers write. It’s that simple. Some of what I write will never be produced, some of it will be. You can’t write one or two manuscripts and then spend years and years trying to craft perfection. Write, and write some more. You never know when a script will find a home.

When Good Writing is Bad

“This is an engaging read, but can you revise it to sound more academic?”

Most of us want to read writing I describe as demonstrating the Five Cs: clear, concise, compelling, correct, and complete. I tell my students and creative writing seminars to resist overwriting. Avoid affected academic prose, with words you’d never use in a passionate, but professional, conversation with colleagues. Stop trying to adhere to high school writing “rules” that generate more fluff and filler than refined thought.

Imagine my disappointment when a journal editor said, “You should being with, ‘In this paper we…’ and then outline your points. Frame it, state it, repeat it.”

Wow. If ever there was bad writing advice, that would be it. Imagine a novel written with that structure:

In this novel we will follow the actions of Jane Eyre, though childhood to marriage. The themes explored include….

If your writing has to be “framed” beyond basic foreshadowing, you write weak prose. Fix it. Punch up the paragraphs and streamline the sentences. We don’t want a world of five-paragraph SAT-ready essays that only impress a handful of English teachers and test scorers.

Academic writing represents the worst writing a reader must endure. Often pretentious and inefficient, we should leave the formulas behind and break free from the tyranny of “rules” that foster creating complicated compositions with little content. Write with passion and flare. Compel your readers to move from sentence to sentence, paragraph to paragraph.

When I tell students to be concise, I explain this does not mean leaving behind a good stylistic twist. A student recently mentioned that I advised parallel construction and repetition, devices other writing instructors warned against. They preferred “variation” of words, so every “said” in an essay became a sighed, yelled, asserted, declared or other action.

“What about Martin Luther King Jr.’s ‘I Have a Dream’ speech?” I asked. “The title phrase appears nine times, with two additional variations. Does that make it bad writing?”

“It breaks the rules,” the student asserted.

I explained that some “extra words” and “repetition” strengthen writing. That’s why we like rhyming poetry and alliteration as readers, especially as children unaware of artificial rules. Give me Dr. Seuss over most modern free-form poetry any day. Learning when to repeat, and why to repeat, takes practice.

One rule should guide writing, including academic writing: Engage the reader. If you fail to engage the reader, nothing else matters. The reader honors you; treat the reader with respect. Drop the annoying academic filler, weak transitions, and empty academese. The “rules” about framing, stating, and summarizing help students reach arbitrary word counts, but they do not encourage good writing.

Academic writing treats readers with condescension and bores them with the routine. Being able to engage in “academic discourse” might earn a student better grades or help a scholar publish research, but it is a lamentable metric by which to measure writing ability.

Yet, I did rewrite the academic paper, because I must. It is now properly dreadful.

Author Interview: Peter Gloviczki

Peter J. Gloviczki is a talented poet — and an assistant professor of communications at Coker College in Hartsville, South Carolina. Peter earned his doctorate at the University of Minnesota, where I was fortunate to study writing and “new media” alongside him. Peter’s research specialty is social media and how these networks are shaping and reflecting public reactions to traumatic events. Online memorials and shared grieving can alter news coverage and historical  perspectives.

Yet, it is his work as poet that most interests me. Maybe it is because we both study online culture that I appreciate the direct and personal nature of poetry. What we post online seems ephemeral, especially when compared to a book sitting on a shelf, waiting to be read again and again.

Peter’s success as a poet is impressive, yet he remains a humble and generous colleague and teacher. He easily could lead seminars in poetry, world literature, journalism, and communications research methods. I believe it is breadth of his interests that makes him such a gifted and perceptive poet.

Your poetry has appeared in many publications, and you have a new book. What would you like readers to know about the book and your other works?

I have written poetry for many years, and I’m very pleased to share this new book, Kicking Gravity (Salmon Poetry, 2013), with the world. The book was written over the past seven (or so) years and it brings together some of my best work across that period. I am honored that my poems have appeared in The Christian Science Monitor, New Orleans Review, Hayden’s Ferry Review and elsewhere. In Kicking Gravity, I write in many different voices and tell the stories that interest me the most; those about life, love, travel and the processes of disconnection and reconnection. I am fortunate to have worked with several talented teachers and mentors over the past several years, including Ray Gonzalez, Maria Damon, Eliot Khalil Wilson, Kim Addonizio, April Ossmann, Hilda Raz and William Reichard. I believe the poems in Kicking Gravity, and my work as a whole, has been considerably strengthened as a result of these experiences.

In school, we encourage children to write poetry. We often assign basic poetic forms in high school, as well. Unfortunately, too many students start to view poetry as strange and difficult to write. What do you believe led to your passion for poetic forms? How was that passion maintained?

I was always encouraged to write and to express myself and I feel very lucky to have had this early support—from my family, friends and teachers. If a student feels called to write, I encourage them to follow that calling and to seek out the writing of others. There are so many great writers at all levels—writing for young children, for elementary, middle and high school students and for adults. To someone who is new to writing, I would offer the following as recommendations: Mary Ann Hoberman, Naomi Shihab Nye, Sandra Beasley, Sandra Cisneros, Adrienne Rich, Gary Soto, Gary Snyder and Mark Levine.

You seem to have an appreciation for short-forms, such as haiku. What about these forms appeals to you?

I am attracted to the challenge of writing with clarity. My favorite poems are those that mean what they say, and do so in a way that is compelling and fresh. I admire those writers who can work within the constraints of the form and yet produce something that sticks in the reader’s mind.

Your Ph.D. is not in literature or poetry. Instead, your specialty is social media and their role in major events. What relationship do you see between social media and poetry?

While there is no formal relationship between the two, I can say that I truly enjoy them both. I love teaching, researching and serving my community, and I enjoy writing and reading poetry. In this way, I am sure that I have been inspired by my parents. My mother was a stage actress and is now a ceramic artist. My father was a slight-of-hand magician and is now a vascular surgeon. I was always encouraged to pursue those things that interest me, and I do so with a great sense of discovery.

You will be relocating from the Twin Cities soon. Could you reflect on the rich literary culture in Minnesota? How did the region help you as a writer?

Minneapolis/St. Paul has a true appreciation for the arts and humanities, including for creative writing Institutions such as The Loft Literary Center, great bookstores such as Magers & Quinn Booksellers and Common Good Books, have helped this area immensely. They create spaces to showcase new voices and encourage new work. I have seen the enthusiasm for poetry first-hand while giving readings and sharing Kicking Gravity with the community. For me personally, I think this region—and the support for the arts that is here—just encouraged me to be myself and write my best poems. I believe there are many great literary communities around this country and around the world, and I would encourage all writers, young and old, to seek out supportive spaces for the production and consumption of new work. These might include bookstores, writing centers, reading and writing groups and community organizations.  I believe that the best tool for a writer anywhere is to be persistent; find opportunities to always keep writing. Just a few minutes a day, or even a few minutes every week, of reading and/or writing can help build the creative habit. I try to read and write when and where I can, as often as possible.

Comments and Marginalia in Manuscripts

As I was writing a post about “comments” in computer programming source code, I noted that I like comments and marginalia when I write for “human” readers. Even when writing for myself, I like to preserve my notes. One of the things we lose with the transition from paper to digital media is the marginalia and other marks readers and writers leave as they read and write.

Reading and Marking

My wife and I both love books. We revere books. Because of this respect for the printed page, neither of us is an active highlighter, annotator, or scribbler. When I took a class that required marking in a book, it pained me to be destroying the pages with green and orange highlights.

When I buy a book, especially a textbook, I don’t want someone’s marks on the pages. First, the previous reader(s) might have marked the wrong passages as important. Second, it is distracting. I want to read and think about a text on my own, at least initially.

I do take notes, and I use Post-It flags to mark important passages. But, I cannot push myself to mark on the pages, no matter how useful that might be. I realize that most of the books I own have little resale value, but some are valuable. They are all valuable to me, regardless.

However, I realize that writing notes and highlighting strategically are good study skills. These are skills I wish my students possessed. It would help most of them earn better grades and, more importantly, consider texts more thoughtfully.

When I do see a student’s text marked, the pages are nearly solid markings. I have to explain to a student, yes, authors should make every word count, but you highlighting every word doesn’t help you focus on the most essential passages. If more than a quarter of a chapter is marked, there is no way to review and study the content effectively in the future.

Here are some suggestions for marking and marginalia I offer my classes:

  1. Limit marks to less than a third, ideally less than a quarter, of any chapter or section.
  2. Use more than one color to code the text in a meaningful manner.
  3. Mark words or phrases that represent the essence of the content, especially technical jargon.
  4. Annotate when a section refers back to another section, with a page number and word or phrase. (For example: “Ref’s c2p23: continental drift.”)
  5. Compare your notes to the index and table of contents, because titles and index references reflect major concepts in most texts.
  6. Outline using the marks you made, updating marginalia as necessary.

Marking a text seems tedious to many students. And, if they are avid readers and book lovers like me, they might resist marking directly on a page. That is why I also demonstrate using Post-It flags and notes for book lovers.

Unlike when I was an undergraduate, today students and teachers carry notebooks and tablet computers. I recommend using dedicated outlining software, either while reading or while reviewing marks. Many word processors have an outline mode, and you can use any text editor for notes, but a program such as OmniOutliner lets you organize and reorganize your thoughts. I demonstrate OmniOutliner and several free alternatives to my classes when I discuss the value of outlining after reading a text.

For books that are in digital formats, most e-reader software has highlighting and comment modes. I scan some older, more fragile texts and “mark” the PDF copy. When I can work with a digital copy of a text, I write a lot of notes to myself.

Notes While Writing

I make notes to myself while writing. Not a few notes, either. These notes help me when I edit, reorganize, and revise any text. Sadly, many writers working at computers don’t take notes. In the dark ages, a writer would write in longhand or type and make all manner of marks on the pages. Those marks and notes were helpful, but that practice is fading.

Tangent: My theory is that longhand and typing force writers to go slowly, to think about every word. When writing each word takes a bit of effort, I write less — but I write better. That’s why I write on legal pads and in notebooks, especially when writing fiction. There are fewer distractions and less temptation to generate high word counts on paper.

When I do open the laptop or pull out the keyboard drawer, I keep making notes while I enter text into my text editors and word processors. I spend part of a class meeting on using the “comments” feature in various programs because I want my students to develop this note taking habit. By the end of the semester, students are thanking me — as if some great mystery had been reveled to them. (Most claim to be masters of Word, yet have little awareness of templates, styles, macros, or basic automation tools.)

Microsoft Word and Apple’s Pages both support comments. When you print, you can control whether or not to print the comments — but there’s no need to delete the comments before you print the document! Too often, my students delete comments that might be useful later. If you must remove comments and other marks from a document before sending it to another person, make a copy of the file first.

Do not place notes as text within the document, not even as “hidden” or “non-printing” text. Comments in a document will alter the layout, page count, and word count. Learn to use your word processors and editors properly.

One reason I love Pages and Scrivener is that they save “versions” and “snapshots” of documents. If you decide that what you have been typing for the last four hours isn’t what you wanted, not a problem. You can “revert to previous” or “restore snapshot” and get back the version you liked. The edits are not lost, either — they are stored as comments and notes.

Additional Notes

I encourage using comments, and I also encourage keeping all other notes taken during the writing process.

Good writers plan. They outline. They research. As they write, they revise and reorganize what they’ve already written. I’ve always kept a physical folder for each writing project, and I try to use a single notebook or legal pad for my handwritten notes, that way the notes for more than one project don’t end up intermingled. I’m usually working on more than one project, so keeping organized is essential.

I advise all writers, especially my students, to keep everything for a project together, both physically and virtually. How you organize the materials should reflect your work style, but be organized. It never seems to fail that the notes you thought you didn’t need anymore become essential to a passage you are writing or revising. Even when you finish a project, keep the notes.

Every writing project has to potential to become another project. For example, I’ve had short stories become stage plays, and then morph into screenplays. I’ve taken novels and turned them into scripts, and vice-versa. The notes I’ve maintained along the way have enabled me to adapt works effectively. Adaptation is hard work, be it an old short story that inspires a novel or a novel that might work well as a film. Without my notes, I might not remember why I made various choices.

Non-fiction also changes. I’ve written articles that lead to other articles. You don’t want to “reuse” earlier works, but you do want to draw from them. Good research for an article remains valuable even if it is contradicted by later research findings. Having old notes, therefore, helps construct better arguments in later works.

While I love physical folders, notepad, and notecards, eventually you type a manuscript or research paper. Since my earliest computing days, I’ve organized my projects carefully. At first, each project was a single floppy disk — or set of disks with labels of the same color. Multicolored disks were a great invention, too! Once hard drives became affordable, I created a “writing” directory (folder) and created folders within that for each project.

Today, I sill keep folders within folders, carefully named for quick searches. The folder approach is good, but for a few years now I have taken this to the next step by using Scrivener for drafts of most writing projects. If you write a lot, buy Scrivener ( I also suggest buying Bookends ( if you need to prepare bibliographies and track sources. Without writing a review of Scrivener (there are many online, since it is a great program), I’ll explain my endorsement simply: it organizes any writing, and all the research for that project, in a nice “binder” with sections.

Whether a writer uses Scrivener and Bookends or some other combination of tools, keeping notes is invaluable.

It is easy, too easy, to delete a document or project from digital media. A click or a keystroke and away the file goes, the bits to be reclaimed and reused for other data. With hard drives, USB memory sticks, and other media so affordable, there really is no good reason to delete documents or other files. Resist the temptation, unless you have a very, very good, extremely good, reason to do so. And even then, I’d discourage deletion.

What if You Become Famous?

That might seem like a silly question, but it is serious to scholars.

When writers worked on paper, libraries and universities could archive the materials of famous individuals. While some writers’ notes were destroyed (Jane Austen) and others hoped their notes would be destroyed (Franz Kafka), the manuscripts, notes, journals, and correspondence left behind by writers are useful artifacts for scholars.

E-mail is unlikely to be saved, so we are likely losing the notes writers exchange with editors, publishers, and agents. We are also losing most of their personal correspondence. (Granted, most emails isn’t worthy of being archived, but not all handwritten or typed letters were important, either.) E-mail, text messages, and other electronic communications quickly fade, though some services like Twitter do offer their archives to the Library of Congress and universities for research.

Sadly, even archived data can be rendered useless.

The floppy disks, old hard drives, and other media stored in our basement cannot be accessed by our current computers. I have no floppy drives, no tower cases with IDE interfaces, no way to access the odd media that seemed so amazing 15 years ago (Zip and LS-120 drives).

I try to remember to migrate old documents and files, including those I haven’t used for years, to each new system I buy or hard drive I install. I’m sure I’ve missed some files over the years, though. In those cases, I should still have printed documents in file folders.

Do your part to keep comments and marginalia alive.